Monday, April 04, 2005

France, History Of, France since 1815

Volumes 2 and 3 of the already mentioned Alfred Cobban, A History of Modern France, 3 vol. (1957–62, reprinted 1969), present the period from the First Empire to the Republics in a sophisticated synthesis; and Gordon Wright, France in Modern Times: From the Enlightenment to the Present, 4th ed. (1987), is an interpretive general survey. Appropriate parts of the massive collective work Histoire économique et sociale de la France, 4 vol. in 8 (1970–82), Fernand Braudel and Ernest Labrousse (eds.), provide coverage by some of the best French experts of economic and social developments up to the last quarter of the 20th century. Surveys of special topics on all or most of the period since 1815 include René Rémond, The Right Wing in France from 1815 to De Gaulle, 2nd ed. (1969; originally published in French, 3rd ed., 1968; rev. French ed., 1982), tracing change and continuity of the political right; Gérard Cholvy and Yves-Marie Hilaire, Histoire religieuse de la France contemporaine, 3 vol. (1985–88), an analysis of the role of various religions; and Raoul Girardet, La Société militaire dans la France contemporaine, 1815–1939 (1953), on the changing role and composition of the military corps. The role of France in world affairs is emphasized in Pierre Renouvin, Le XIXe, 2 vol. (1954–55), on the developments of the 19th century, part of the series “Histoire des relations internationales.” François Caron, An Economic History of Modern France, trans. from French (1979, reissued 1983), revises older views about France's rate of growth; Theodore Zeldin, France, 1848–1945, 2 vol. (1973–77), explores modern French society, stressing its complexity and continuity; and Eugen Weber, Peasants into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France (1976), argues that a sense of nationhood came to rural France only in the late 19th century. Period studies include Guillaume de Bertier de Sauvigny, The Bourbon Restoration (1966, originally published in French, 1955), the standard work on the period 1815–1830; David H. Pinkney, Decisive Years in France, 1840–1847 (1986), arguing that France changed fundamentally in these years; Roger Price, The French Second Republic: A Social History (1972), a thoughtful reevaluation; Ted W. Margadant, French Peasants in Revolt: The Insurrection of 1851 (1979), suggesting that leftist views remained vigorous after 1848; J.P.T. Bury, Napoléon III and the Second Empire (1964), a well-informed analysis; Michael Howard, The Franco-Prussian War: The German Invasion of France, 1870–1871 (1961, reissued 1981), a model study; and Stewart Edwards, The Paris Commune, 1871 (1971), a balanced reevaluation. Roger Shattuck, The Banquet Years: The Origins of the Avant Garde in France, 1885 to World War I, rev. ed. (1968, reissued 1984), is a brilliant survey of Parisian culture of the period; and Charles Rearick, Pleasures of the Belle Epoque: Entertainment and Festivity in Turn-of-the-Century France (1985), describes the high life in Monmartre. D.W. Brogan, France Under the Republic: The Development of Modern France, 1870–1939 (1940, reprinted 1974), is a classic account; Jacques Chastenet, Histoire de la Troisième République, 7 vol. (1952–63, reissued in 4 vol., 1974), remains the most detailed treatment of the period; David Thomson, Democracy in France Since 1870, 5th ed. (1969), offers a penetrating study of political and social aspects; and Jean-Denis Bredin, The Affair: The Case of Alfred Dreyfus (1986; originally published in French, 1983), provides a highly readable account of the great crisis. For the 20th century, see Eugen Weber, Action Française: Royalism and Reaction in Twentieth Century France (1962), a full analysis of this right-wing movement; Zeev Sternhell, La Droite Révolutionnaire, 1885–1914: les origines françaises du fascisme (1978, reprinted 1984), a controversial argument that fascism was born in France; Marc Ferro, The Great War, 1914–1918 (1973, reissued 1987; originally published in French, 1969), a good synthesis; Robert O. Paxton, Vichy France: Old Guard and New Order, 1940–1944 (1972, reissued 1982), a critical analysis of the Pétain regime; Jean-Baptiste Duroselle, La Décadence, 1932–1939, 3rd rev. ed. (1985), and L'Abîme: 1939–1945, 2nd rev. ed. (1986), two volumes of devastating analysis of French foreign policy before and during World War II; Charles de Gaulle, War Memoirs, 5 vol. (1955–60; originally published in French, 1954–59), and Memoirs of Hope: Renewal and Endeavor (1971; originally published in French, 2 vol., 1970–71), indispensable for an understanding of the Gaullist era; Jean Lacouture, Charles de Gaulle, 3 vol. (1984–86), a full and perceptive biography; Philip M. Williams, Crisis and Compromise: Politics in the Fourth Republic, 3rd ed. (1964, reissued 1972), an excellent account of that system of government; Pierre Viansson-Ponté, Histoire de la république gaullienne, 2 vol. (1970–71, reissued in 1 vol., 1984), on the Fifth Republic's Gaullist phase; Stanley Hoffmann et al., In Search of France (1963), an analysis of postwar France; George Ross, Stanley Hoffmann, and Sylvia Malzacher (eds.), The Mitterrand Experiment: Continuity and Change in Modern France (1987), a study of the socialist years; and Alfred Grosser, Affaires extérieures: la politique de la France, 1944–1989 (1989), a penetrating analysis of postwar France's role in the world.

Saturday, March 19, 2005

O'brien, Parry

O'Brien began putting the shot in high school in Santa Monica, where he also threw the discus, was a sprinter, and played football. In his freshman year at the University

Wednesday, March 16, 2005

Bat Yam

City, west-central Israel, on the Plain of Sharon and the Mediterranean coast just south of Tel Aviv–Yafo. Founded in 1926 as a suburban development called Bayit ve-Gan (Hebrew: “House and Garden”), it was abandoned during the Arab riots of 1929. Resettled, it developed as a seaside resort and residential suburb of Tel Aviv. In 1936 the name was changed to Bat Yam (meaning “daughter of the

Monday, March 14, 2005


The hard palate, which composes two-thirds of the total palate area, is a plate of bone covered by a moist,

Saturday, March 12, 2005

Olympio, Sylvanus

A leader of the Committee of Togolese Unity after World War II, Olympio was elected president of the first territorial assembly in 1946 and by 1947 was in open (though nonviolent) conflict

Friday, March 11, 2005


Also spelled  Illa , also called  Ila Orangun  town, Osun state, southwestern Nigeria. The town lies in the Yoruba Hills and on the road from Oshogbo to Omu-Aran. One of the oldest settlements of the Yoruba people, it was founded according to tradition by the orangun (“ruler”) of Ila, a son of Oduduwa, the deity who is said to have spread earth on the primeval water. Modern Ila is a collecting centre for locally produced cotton

Tuesday, March 08, 2005


Pigeons occur worldwide except in the coldest regions and the most remote islands. About 250 species are known;